Table of Contents
This is the beginning
Metals are a type of material that is often used to make items such as tools, jewelry, and machinery.
A transparent, brittle material that can be made into a variety of items.
An introductory statement
The Executive Housekeeper must be able to identify the various types of surfaces within the hotel to determine the best way to care for them.
Hotels have a variety of surfaces with different hardnesses. Housekeeping should be able to identify the most suitable cleaning and maintaining procedures for each type of hard surface, no matter what its composition. Their cleaning and upkeep is essential to the overall maintenance and cleaning program.
Metal, glass, wood, granite, terrazzo and rubber are some of the surfaces that hotels use. The surfaces used in hotels are very large and they get a lot more wear.
The purpose of a specific area will determine the type of flooring that is best for it. Kitchens may be more concerned with durability and hygiene than they are about appearance, whereas lobby areas place equal importance on both.
The following factors will determine the type of surface used in hotels:
Comfortable area is required
Footfalls in the area
Cleaning surfaces with ease
Expected life of floor surfaces
MetalsMetals are used in many furniture, fixtures and fittings. Metals such as silver, steel and copper are commonly used. Metals can be found in furniture, doors and windows, wall panelings, lighting, kitchen utensils, cutlery for restaurants, and other items.
Metal surfaces tend to tarnish and rust without protection. Most metals will be plated in a precious alloy, most commonly silver.
This is an earth-found, soft, malleable ductile metal. This white metal is not affected by water, air or most food. It is a white metal that shines brightly when it’s polished.
Silver-plated articles are made by dipping blanks of nickel silver alloy or nickel brass into a complex solution of silver salts. Silver salts are dissolved in the solution and then electrolyzed to transfer silver onto the blanks. The process is also called E.P.N.S. or electroplated nickel silver.
Re-plating silver plated items is possible but expensive as the old coating must be removed to repair or treat it. Silver is tarnished by sulphur compounds and food such as onion juice, pickles or eggs. This tarnish does not remove with simple cleaning but needs special treatment.
This method involves putting the silver items in a solution of hot washing soda with a perforated sheet of aluminum (Polvit Sheet). The silver is tarnished and the sulphur moves to the aluminium through a chemical process. Silver is cleaned with boiling water then dried on a lintless towel.
A liquid chemical solution, a silver dip is. This solution tends to react with stainless steel. Only use it on earthenware (glass), glass or plastic earthenware.
After removing the silver, rinse it quickly in hot running water.
This is an emulsion mixture, paste, or powder that’s rubbed onto the object, removed with a buffing pad, and washed, dried, using a polishing towel, like Silvo.
Steel, which is resistant to corrosion, is created by adding chrome to iron and carbon. Cutlery, furniture, sanitary products, and serving dishes are all made of stainless steel.
It contains nickel, chromium as well as being hardened with cold work.
Stainless steel has a metallic polish and is durable. However, it is not scratch-resistant.
Chrome steel comes from coating steel with the element chromium. Chrome steel can be used to make taps and bath handles.
The zinc coating on steel prevents tarnishing. Buckets are made from it.
It is then rinsing with running water. Then, it is buffed.
The metal copper
This metal can be used as wall paneling, countertops, bowls, vase, even serving and cooking utensils and cutlery.
Cleaning copper involves washing it in warm, soapy water. Then, it is rubbed in a salt-vinegar-lime-tamarind mixture. The object is cleaned with warm, soapy water. It is immediately dried so that any watermarks are not left.
When cleaning cookware, you should use a mild soap and warm water.
Other than cookware or serving dishes, copper can be polished by using a proprietary product.
Metal alloy composed primarily of copper and zinc
Paraphrased: Shake or vibrate unsteadily
Brass can be cleaned with plenty of running tap water and a mild detergent. Salt is used as an abrasive to rub tamarind/lime with. The cloth is then washed and dried in a solution containing detergent and water.
The utensil must be cleaned in water and detergent if it is to be used for food.
Washing bronze in detergent and water is the best way to clean it. The bronze is dried and then a proprietary finish is applied.
Aluminum is malleable. It’s also ductile. It is also used to manufacture cooking utensils. Aluminum does not tarnish with air or moisture, but is damaged by alkalis and soda as well as by acids.
Aluminum can be cleaned by using detergent and water. To remove tough stains, you can use mild abrasives.
Forged iron, or wrought iron, is a type of iron. The iron is shaped using heat and hammered.
Cast iron consists of an iron alloy, carbon, and silica that are cast in moulds. Cast iron that is not enameled will not burn or scorch in the oven. Only wash iron when needed and thoroughly. Regular washing is required for galvanized iron. You can remove any surface rust with steel wool and oxalic diluted acid. Iron should be treated with black lead or oil to prolong its life.
GlassGlass can be made of silica, sand, or other chemicals depending on its quality.
Glass can be used in many ways, including: Glass is used for many purposes, including tableware, kitchen utensils.
Glass surface requires regular dusting. A vinegar-water solution is used to clean light marks. Diluted methylated spirit can be used to remove stubborn marks. Newspaper is used to wipe the glass.
Use a lint-free cloth to dry the glass.
PlasticsThese can be used in tablewares, hardware and as protective films to protect metals, woods etc. The long filaments can be woven to textiles. Plastics are used to cover fabrics. They are very strong, not very absorbent, and dry quickly.
Plastics can be classified into two different types based on the properties they possess.
1. Thermosetting Plastics
2. Materials that soften when exposed to heat and harden again when cooled.
These plastics are not softer when reheated, e.g.
They are made of soft plastic that softens with heat and then hardens upon cooling.
Cellulose Nitrate and Acetate
Polyamides are a type of polymer made with repeating amide groups.
Synthetic fibers made from polyester
The advantages of plastic
Plastics are lightweight.
Most chemicals are not effective against them.
These are durable and can be used for a long time.
These devices are not conductors.
Easy to clean
Most of them are non-absorbent.
Pests are not a problem.
Plastics are cheaper than metals.
Plastics of all types are easily cleaned and maintained. All that is required to clean and maintain plastics is to wipe and dust them daily with a mild soap and duster. Add sodium bicarbonate into water and then wash to remove food marks.
CeramicsCeramics can be made using sand, clay, and other ingredients. They are mixed in different proportions to make different types of ceramics.
Earthenware Stoneware Porcelain Bone China Terracotta
Ceramics: Types and Uses
It is made of clay, and it’s a porous thick material. It can be used to make vases and bowls as well as ashtrays.
Earthenware is fragile and can chip or break easily. Earthenware
Clay pottery that has been fired in a kiln.
WoodWood can be made by using trees from the natural world. Wood can be used for many purposes, and has many different colours and grain designs.
The porous nature of wood absorbs dust and water. The wood is susceptible to pest and fungal attack.
Different types of wood
Hard wood and soft wood are classified according to their strength, resilience, and durability.
Teak, oak, ash and beech are popular woods. Birch, walnut and rosewood are also very common. Hardwoods such as teak, oak and birch are also popular.
Today, hardwoods are used to cover soft woods as veneers because they are costly.
Wood from coniferous trees
Coniferous trees are used to produce these woods. Popular woods for furniture are cedar wood, rubber, pine and fir. These woods are cheaper, lighter and more susceptible to wear. Soft wood is commonly used for furniture, subfloors, ceilings and joists.
These planks are more affordable than solid hardwood, lighter and treated to last longer.
It is made of wood fibres and is thin, flexible. On one side they are smooth, while the other has a mesh texture.
Hardboard can be used to create door panels, wardrobe or cupboard backing, drawer bases, floor tiles, etc.
It is made from gluing together thin sheets. Plywood can be easily shaped and is strong. The use of veneers and laminates can make the plywood look more appealing. For example, plywood is used in the manufacture of tables, desks shelves, counter-tops, and so on.
The veneers are laid over wood strips of up to 3 cm thickness.
Blackwood can be used to make worktops and shelves.
Cardboard made of wood chips
Chipboard is made of compressed wood, synthetic resin and chips. It is heavy, strong, and can be used to make cabinets, drawers and worktops.
It is made from the light-brown outer bark of the Cork Oak. Porous, they are easily combustible and absorbent. Use cork to make floor coverings or wall coverings.
You should never use water to clean it. You should vacuum or dust the surface. You can polish wood surfaces. For wood that will last a lifetime, you can use Beeswax.
StoneMarble, granite, slate and quartzite are some of the most common stones. Stone can also be used in furniture, decoration, and as an external wall, tabletops, counters, etc.
Line-stone that has been crystallized and metamorphosed. There are many marble patterns and colors, such as white, black or green. The marble can have a matt or glossy finish.
This rock is composed of sand and sedimentary rocks.
This stone is made up of feldspar, quartz and mica.
This compact granular silica stone is made up of silica.
It is composed of silt and mud that has solidified over time. Available as layers or slabs.
Water stains can be removed with fine abrasives and synthetic detergents.
Vinyl finishes are manufactured from PVC, other synthetic resins and inert pigments. Vinyl asbestos is one type and flexible Vinyl is another.
In hospitals, offices, and corridors vinyl flooring may be used. Vinyl flooring may be cleaned by using a mop dampened with detergent and hot water.
Linoleum comes in tiles or rolls. Linoleum absorbs moisture, so it’s best to seal it. During the cleaning process, use less water. Linoleum gets damaged when it is exposed to coarse abrasives, alkalis or other corrosive substances. If you use too much polish, the surface can become slippery.
RubberThis is a natural/synthetic material with properties such as elasticity, resistance to water and electricity.
Latex is the natural rubber that comes from this. It is then mixed in a mixing machine with other ingredients to form a compound. The mix is then mechanically applied on a surface or in a shape. The rubber is strengthened by vulcanizing the mixture.
Types of Rubber:
Crepe rubber is made from uncured rubber and used as insulation blankets.
Rubber products that have been vulcanized at high temperatures and pressures in the presence vulcanizing agents like sulphur selenium or tellurium.
Rubber vulcanized can be used for conveyor belts and rollers to mop wringers.
Foam rubber is produced using the foaming machine to create mattresses and set cushion.
Upholstery, mattresses and pillows are all made of synthetic rubber.
Rubber flooring in the form of tiles and sheets can also be made using vulcanized Vulcanized.
This material is non-absorbent and is damaged by alkalis, solvents, abrasives, sunlight, and sprit.
Rubber surfaces can be cleaned easily with water, synthetic detergents and soap.